The authors are indebted to the Public Health Agency of Canada for their helpful review and guidance of this endeavor. We also extend our sincere appreciation to colleagues who reviewed the paper and offered helpful suggestions for improving the content and recommendations (in alphabetical order): Marla Brassard, Claire Chamberlain, James Garbarino, Stuart Hart, Amy Slep, and Christine Wekerle.
This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child emotional maltreatment, with a primary focus on the parent-child relationship context (rather than abnormal parent behaviour alone). Numerous factors that impinge on the distinction between these acts were considered, such as the child’s age, the frequency and severity of behaviour shown by caregivers, cultural norms, and parental beliefs and goals in childrearing. Findings suggest that the literature on child emotional maltreatment has advanced beyond the descriptive phase of scientific understanding, and principles and practical criteria for distinguishing such behaviour from poor parenting are presented. Conclusions and recommendations focus on practical guidelines for assessing risk and activating appropriate prevention and intervention: 1) parental actions and relative risk of harm to the child are both important ingredients in defining and distinguishing child emotional maltreatment from other forms of poor parenting; 2) poor parenting methods fall along a broad continuum and fit within a population health mandate aimed at reducing incidence of all forms of negative parenting methods; 3) child emotional maltreatment can be defined categorically based on qualitatively more extreme and potentially more harmful behaviours (than poor parenting), which requires a focused intervention response. Additional recommendations for training, research, and community-based public health initiatives are presented.
Emotional Abuse; Emotional Neglect; Emotional Maltreatment; Child Abuse; Parenting Styles; Poor Parenting; Child Maltreatment; Psychological Abuse, Psychological Maltreatment.