Public Health Agency of Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Share this page

Measles and Rubella Weekly Monitoring Report

Week 14, 2015: April 05 to April 11, 2015

Key Points

  • In Canada, during week 14, 8 new cases of measles were reported, by British Columbia (n=6) and Quebec (n=2). One imported case of rubella was reported by Ontario.
  • Two provinces (Quebec and British Columbia) have reported recent measles activity. These events are not linked, as they are different genotypes and resulted from separate importation events (B3 from USA, and H1 from China, respectively).
  • A total of 191 cases of measles, and 1 case of rubella have been reported in Canada for 2015.

Epidemiological Summary

Figure 1: Number of cases of measles (n=191) and rubella (n=1), by week of rash onset, as reported to the Canadian Measles/ Rubella Surveillance System (CMRSS) and Measles and Rubella Surveillance system (MARS), for the period ending April 11 2015 .

Figure 1

Enlarge Figure 1

Text Equivalent - Figure 1

During epidemiological week 14, 2015, 8 new cases of measles were reported, by British Columbia (n=6) and Quebec (n=2). Rash onsets for these cases occurred in week 11 (n=2), week 13 (n=5) and week 14 (n=1). Recent cases in British Columbia have been linked to travel to China. Conversely, cases in Quebec have primarily been reported in a non-immunizing religious community, linked to travel to the USA.

One imported case of rubella was reported in Ontario, with rash onset during week 12.

The year-to-date total is 191 cases of measles and 1 case of rubella for 2015.

Note that when additional cases are reported in advance of the cycle, these cases will be described in the appropriate reporting cycle.

Geographic Distribution

Figure 2A: Distribution of confirmed measles cases by health region. Cases are included if they are considered activeFigure 2 - Footnote * Figure 2 - Footnote ¥ Figure 2 - Footnote .

Figure 2A


Enlarge Figure 2A

Text Equivalent - Figure 2A

Figure 2A - Footnote *
Active cases or outbreaks are those in which the onset date of the most recent case/outbreak-associated case falls within 32 days of the issue date of this reportFootnote 1.
Figure 2A - Footnote ¥
'No Data' is indicated for jurisdictions that do report cases of measles or rubella to the Public Health Agency of Canada, but do not include the public health region variable.
Figure 2A - Footnote
Public health region was not reported for eleven cases of measles in British Columbia. These cases have been excluded from the figure.

Figure 2B: Distribution of confirmed rubella cases by health region. Cases are included if they are considered activeFigure 2B - Footnote * Figure 2B - Footnote ¥.

Figure 2B


Enlarge Figure 2B

Text Equivalent - Figure 2B

Figure 2B - Footnote *
Active cases or outbreaks are those in which the onset date of the most recent case/outbreak-associated case falls within 32 days of the issue date of this reportFootnote 1.
Figure 2B - Footnote ¥
'No Data' is indicated for jurisdictions that do report cases of measles or rubella to the Public Health Agency of Canada, but do not include the public health region variable.

Laboratory Summary

Measles

To date in 2015, 48 measles cases have been genotyped and the genotypes were: B3 (n=20), D4 (n=17), H1 (n=9) and D8 (n=2).

From Quebec, 20 cases were genotyped and were genotype B3, identical to the MVi/Harare.ZWE/38.09 sequence variant (GenBank accession number JF973033), and identical to the virus reported in a multi-state outbreak in the United States.

Nine cases from British Columbia were genotype H1 which is endemic in ChinaFootnote 2, consistent with travel and exposure history for these cases. All nine cases had N-450 sequences identical to the MVs/Hong Kong.CHN/49.12 sequence variant (GenBank accession number KC417295).

Figure 3: Distribution of measles genotypes detected in 2015 (n=48) by week of rash onset (if available, n=48) or specimen collection (n=0). Epidemiological weeks are assigned in accordance with WHO guidelines (WHO.WER.2012;9(87):73) with week 1 beginning on the first Monday of the year.

Figure 3

Enlarge Figure 3

Text Equivalent - Figure 3

Figure 3 - Footnote *
Genotype B3 sequences identical to sequence variant MVi/Harare.ZWE/38.09 (GenBank accession number JF973033)

The current global distribution of measles genotypes can be found on the WHO Measles Surveillance websiteExternal Link.

For information regarding the interpretation and use of measles genotyping (including a discussion of genotypes and sequence variants), refer to Hiebert J and Severini A. Canada Communicable Disease Report. 2014; 40-12: 257- 260.

Footnote 1
Public Health Agency of Canada. Guidelines for the prevention and control of measles outbreaks in Canada. Canadian Communicable Disease Report. 2013. Vol. 39: Definitions: conclusion of an outbreak (p. 5).
Footnote 2
Rota PA, K Brown, A Mankertz, S Santibanez et al. Global distribution of measles genotypes and measles molecular epidemiology. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011:204(Suppl 1);S514-S523.