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Diphtheroids

PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Diphtheroids

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Any member of Corynebacterium other than C. diphtheriae; pseudodiphtheria; Proprionibacterium; C. bovis, C. xerosis, C. pyogenes, C. haemolyticum, C. pseudotuberculosis, C. ulcerans

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram positive straight to slightly curved rods; nonsporulating; non-motile; irregularly stained, sometimes granular; may be arranged in angular and palisade groups

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Includes human and animal parasites and pathogens as well as nonpathogens; C. haemolyticum - associated with pharangitis and skin ulcers in man; C. pseudotuberculosis - usually disease of lower animals but can cause zoonotic disease in humans; C. pyogenes - toxicogenic in animals and isolated from human pharyngitis and skin lesions; C. ulcerans - toxigenic causing nasopharyngeal infections; C. xerosis - opportunistic species found in conjunctival sac and on skin and mucous membranes

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide

HOST RANGE: Humans, many domestic animals - cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Usually opportunistic pathogens; contact with infected animals or food

INCUBATION PERIOD: Unknown

COMMUNICABILITY: Low

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Many domestic animals - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses; deer; mice and rats

ZOONOSIS: Yes, depending on species

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to penicillin, erythromycin and tetracyline

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, iodines

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121·C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170·C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Some species do not survive well outside of host

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; immunological techniques are not available

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Antibiotic therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: Antibiotic prophylaxis

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 33 reported cases of C. diphtheria; no reported cases with other Corynebacterium spp.

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Exudates or secretions of the nose, throat, pharynx; wound exudates; blood; skin

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Inhalation of infectious aerosols and droplets; accidental parenteral inoculation; ingestion

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for all activities involving known or potentially infected clinical materials or cultures; animal-biosafety level 2 facilities for studies utilizing infected laboratory animals

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: September 1996 Prepared by: Office of Biosafety

LCDC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.