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Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) mallei - Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) mallei

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Glanders, Malleomyces mallei, Farcy, Malleus; formerly classified with Pseudomonas

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram-negative rods, aerobic, nonmotile, bipolar staining, nonpigmented

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Appears in three forms: a chronic pulmonary form with cough, mucopurulent discharge; Farcy, a form characterized by multiple abscesses in the skin, subcutaneous tissues and lymphatics; an acute septicemic form with fever, chills, prostration and death in 7-10 days

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Has disappeared from most regions of the world; enzootic foci in Asia and eastern Mediterranean countries; sporadic cases in the Western hemisphere in those whose occupations involve contact with infected equines or work in laboratories

HOST RANGE: Equines, especially horses and mules; humans are accidental hosts

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Direct contact with nasal secretion of equines; inhalation of aerosols

INCUBATION PERIOD: 1-14 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Handling cultures shown to be high risk for infection

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Environmental organism found in soil and water; horses, mules, donkeys

ZOONOSIS: Yes, direct or indirect contact of mucous membrane with lesion discharges of infected animals

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to ceftazidime, imipenem, doxycycline, minocycline, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin

DRUG RESISTANCE: Tetracyclines

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants; 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by heating at 55°C for 10 min; sensitive to UV irradiation

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives in water at room temperature up to 30 days

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms and isolate patients; use mallein in intrapalpebral test to detect infected equines for slaughter; isolate and characterize organism to confirm

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Administer antibiotic therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Twenty cases were reported with 7 deaths up to 1976; a centrifuge accident led to 4 cases with 1 death; six cases were reported due to mouth pipetting; one USA case reported in May 2000, researcher working on a vaccine for glanders

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Sputum, blood, wound exudate

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Direct contact with cultures and infectious materials from human, animals; exposure to infectious aerosols and droplets; ingestion; parenteral inoculation

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Infected laboratory animals

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 3 practices and containment for activities utilizing infectious body fluids, tissues and cultures; Agriculture Canada may impose additional requirements or restrictions on the use of this agent

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves and gown with ties in back and tight wrist when working with infectious materials

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Heavy protective gloves and face shields to protect from infectious droplets and tissue fragments when working with infectious animals; appropriate protection from aerosols

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wear protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) and clean area

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled and stored in a level 3 facility

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: November 1999

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright ©
Health Canada, 2001