NAME: Mayaro virus
SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Epidemic polyarthritis and rash, Mayaro fever, MAY
CHARACTERISTICS: Togaviridae (formerly group A arboviruses), genus Alphavirus; spherical, enveloped virions 60 nm in diameter, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome
PATHOGENICITY: Self limiting febrile viral disease; characterized by arthralgia or arthritis typically in the knee, ankle and small joints of the extremities, followed by a maculopapular rash; buccal and palatal enanthea can occur; inapperent infections are common, immunity is long lasting.
EPIDEMIOLOGY: Found in South and Central America.
HOST RANGE: Humans, primates, other mammals, birds.
INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By bite of an infective mosquito.
INCUBATION PERIOD: Usually 3-11 days.
COMMUNICABILITY: No evidence of person-to-person transmission.
RESERVOIR: Most likely primates.
ZOONOSIS: Probable - most likely from primates which generate high viremia but manifest no disease.
VECTORS: Mosquitoes - Haemogogus spp.
DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No antiviral available to date.
SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Sensitive to 70% ethanol, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, sensitive to lipid solvents.
PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by moist, dry heat> 58o C; sensitive to drying.
SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Unknown, less than one day in culture medium at 37o C.
SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by serological analysis and viral isolation in tissue culture (vero cells).
FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Mainly supportive therapy.
IMMUNIZATION: None available to date.
PROPHYLAXIS: None available.
LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: At least 6 reported cases.
PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation, aerosols.
SPECIAL HAZARDS: None.
CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Containment Level 3 facilities, equipment, and operational practices for work involving infectious or potentially infectious materials, animals, or cultures.
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Personnel entering the laboratory should remove street clothing and jewellery, and change into dedicated laboratory clothing and shoes, or don full coverage protective clothing (i.e., completely covering all street clothing). Additional protection may be worn over laboratory clothing when infectious materials are directly handled, such as solid-front gowns with tight fitting wrists, gloves, and respiratory protection. Eye protection must be used where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes.
OTHER PRECAUTIONS: All activities with infectious material should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) or other appropriate primary containment device in combination with personal protective equipment. Centrifugation of infected materials must be carried out in closed containers placed in sealed safety cups, or in rotors that are loaded or unloaded in a biological safety cabinet. The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Open wounds, cuts, scratches, and grazes should be covered with waterproof dressings. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities.
SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle and, wearing protective clothing, gently cover the spill with paper towels and apply suitable disinfectant starting at the perimeter and working towards the center. Allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up.
DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal by steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, and/or incineration.
STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled and locked in a Containment Level 3 facility.
Date prepared: March, 2001
Prepared by: Centre for Biosecurity, PHAC
Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.
Health Canada, 2001