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CHIRPP

ARCHIVED - Injuries associated with... EQUESTRIAN ACTIVITIES

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CHIRPP database, summary data for 1996, all ages


SUMMARY (1179 records)

Almost half (48.1) of equestrian-related injuries were sustained by children 10 to 14 years of age, and 76.5% of all equestrian injuries were to females. Equestrian injuries were most common in the summer (40.9%), on weekends (46.9%) and between the hours of noon and 8 p.m.(62.2%). Most of the injuries (62.1%) occurred when a rider fell from a horse. Equestrian injuries most often occurred in outdoor recreational areas (43.3%). A total of 48.6% of equestrian injuries required advice only or minor treatment, 36.5% required medical follow-up after leaving the emergency department and 14.3% of the patients were admitted to hospital. Injuries to the arm or hand accounted for 37.8% of all injuries. The most frequent type of injury was abrasions, bruises or inflammations (39.6% of all injuries). Use of protective equipment was reported by 21.8% of persons injured.

SPECIFICATIONS OF THE SEARCH

An April 1995 search of the entire CHIRPP database (423,663 records) was conducted. There was no age restriction. Records were selected if the injury was coded for horseback riding (factor code 1239) or horses (factor code 6203) or if the text fields included the word and word segments "horse", "cheval", "eques," "chevaux," "cavalier," or "equitation." Records were excluded if the person was not injured i) by a horse, ii) by a fall from a horse or iii) while handling and/or near a horse. Injuries to persons who fell off wagons or other vehicles pulled by horses were not included unless the horse stepped on or kicked the victim. The total number of records identified was 1179.

OVERALL OCCURRENCE

The proportion of records in the entire CHIRPP database accounted for by equestrian injuries was 0.28%. The proportion of equestrian injuries among all CHIRPP records for each year ranged from 0.25% to 0.32% for the years 1990 to 1994.


AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF INJURED PERSONS

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES % FEMALE*
1-4 years 84 7.1 46.4
5-9 years 211 17.9 66.4
10-14 years 567 48.1 84.3
15-19 years 163 13.8 89.6
20-99 years 154 13.1 64.3
Total 1179 100 76.5

* Of all injuries in the CHIRPP database, 40.3% are to females.


SEASON DURING WHICH INJURY OCCURRED

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES
Summer (June-August) 482 40.9
Fall (Sept.-Nov.) 328 27.8
Spring (March-May) 241 20.4
Winter (Dec.-Feb.) 128 10.9
Total 1179 100.0

TIME AT WHICH INJURY OCCURRED

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES
Midnight to 8 a.m. 7 0.6
8 a.m. to Noon 146 12.4
Noon to 4 p.m. 359 30.4
4 p.m. to 8 p.m. 375 31.8
8 p.m. to 8 a.m. 100 8.5
Unknown 192 16.3
Total 1179 100.0

DAY OF WEEK WHEN INJURY OCCURRED

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES
Sunday 270 22.9
Monday 144 12.2
Tuesday 124 10.5
Wednesday 119 10.1
Thursday 120 10.2
Friday 119 10.1
Saturday 283 24.0
Total 1179 100.0

WHERE THE INJURY OCCURRED

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES
Outdoor recreational area 511 43.3
Commercial stable or riding school 234 19.8
Farm or ranch 126 10.7
Home yard 88 7.5
Area for organized sport (e.g., jump course, arena) 65 5.5
Commercial area 40 3.4
Road or path 32 2.7
Unknown 83 7.0
Total 1179 100.0

SAFETY DEVICE USED AT TIME OF INJURY

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES
None or not reported 922 78.2
Unspecified sport specific equipment 125 10.6
Helmet or hard hat 28 2.4
Other protective equipment 104 8.8
Total 1179 100.0

EQUESTRIAN ACTIVITY OR CIRCUMSTANCES CONTRIBUTING TO THE INJURY

The following is a list of frequently occurring circumstances and factors leading to equestrian injury. Each case has been assigned to only one category and percentages are based on 1179 persons injured. Category assignment is based on the level of detail available in the description of the injury.

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES
Fell from a horse   732 62.1
Lost control of horse 311    
Jumping/attempting jump 56    
Horse slipped/fell 35    
Saddle slipped/tack broke 16    
While mounting/dismounting 8    
Not further specified 306    
Stepped on by horse   133 11.3
While grooming/walking/handling 53    
After rider fell from horse 43    
Slipped/fell near horse 6    
Horse startled or nervous 4    
While mounting/dismounting 3    
After fall from wagon/buggy 3    
Not further specified 21    
Kicked by horse   130 11
Spontaneous action by horse 58    
Horse startled or hurt 15    
While grooming/walking/handling 14    
While riding another horse 11    
While mounting/dismounting 4    
Not further specified 28    
Bitten by horse   35 3
While feeding 14    
Unprovoked 11    
Not further specified 10    
Horse fell/rolled on injured person   35 3
While riding the horse 32    
While handling/near horse 2    
Not further specified 1    
Rider hit an obstacle while riding   19 1.6
Injury due to over-exertion/sprain/strain   18 1.5
Sudden movement by horse caused injury  from tack or lead ropes   17 1.4
Horse knocked injured person over   16 1.4
Horse butted injured person   12 1
Caught between horse and other object   11 0.9
While handling/near horse 7    
While mounted 2    
While mounting/dismounting 1    
Not further specified 1    
Dragged by horse   5 0.4
Involved in rodeo events   4 0.3
Other rare circumstances   7 0.6
Unknown   5 0.4
Total   1179 100

TREATMENT PROVIDED

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES
Left without being seen 7 0.6
Advice only, or treatment with no need for follow-up 573 48.6
Treated, follow-up required 430 36.5
Admitted to hospital  169 *14.3
Fatal injury **0  
Total 1179 100

* The percentage of all CHIRPP injuries that resulted in hospital admission is 5.7%.

** Fatalities counted by CHIRPP include only those patients who were dead on arrival at the emergency department or who died in the emergency department. They do not include people who died before they could be taken to hospital or those who died after hospital admission.


NATURE OF INJURY AND BODY PART INJURED

  NUMBER PERCENT OF INJURIES
Abrasion/bruising/inflammation   544 39.6
lower extremity 184    
trunk 126    
upper extremity 122    
head or neck 104    
gastrointestinal tract 4    
respiratory tract 4    
Fracture   419 30.5
upper extremity 298    
lower extremity 54    
head or neck 49    
trunk 18    
Sprain/strain/dislocation   149 10.8
upper extremity 56    
lower extremity 48    
trunk 30    
head or neck 15    
Cuts/laceration/other wound (excluding bite)   78 5.7
head or neck 49    
upper extremity 9    
lower extremity 9    
gastrointestinal tract 8    
trunk 3    
Concussion   66 4.8
Minor head injury   35 2.5
Bite   28 2.0
upper extremity 19    
trunk 4    
lower extremity 3    
head or neck 2    
Crushing injury   15 1.1
lower extremity 9    
upper extremity 5    
spleen 1    
Dislocation, subluxation   10 0.7
upper extremity 10    
Dental   8 0.6
Inflammation or haematoma of the brain   6 0.4
Multiple system trauma   5 0.4
Hemorrhage   3 0.2
Other   8 0.6
No injury detected   (24)  
Total   *1374 100.0

* Up to three injuries may be specified for each record. 181 patients (15.4%) sustained more than one injury.


PROFILE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL

Of the 169 patients admitted to hospital, 128 were female and 41 were male; 23 were one to four years old, 46 were five to nine years old, 76 were ten to fourteen years old, 22 were fifteen to nineteen years old and 2 were over nineteen years of age. A fall from a horse was reported by 103 of these patients, 37 were kicked by horses, 13 were stepped on by horses, a horse fell or rolled over onto 8 patients, 2 patients were bitten, 2 patients were knocked over, one was butted by a horse, one was participating in a rodeo event, one was pushed off the horse by another person and the circumstances of the injury are unknown for one patient. Fracture was the primary injury of 108 patients (48 of the arm, 33 of the head, 21 of the leg, and 6 of the trunk), 21 patients suffered concussion, 17 patients had haematoma or inflammation (3 of internal organs, 3 of the head, 3 of the respiratory tract, 3 of the brain, 2 of the spine, one of the kidney, one of an unspecified part of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the abdomen), 11 patients suffered cuts and lacerations (5 of internal organs, 3 of the head, one of the mouth, one of the genitalia and one of the kidney), 5 patients suffered multiple system trauma, 3 patients had minor head injuries, 2 had bites, one sustained a dental injury, and one suffered a brain hemorrhage.