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ARCHIVED - 2009 - Preliminary Results

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Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans and the Agri-Food Sector

Humans

Salmonella (n = 2,991)

Salmonella Enteritidis

(n = 703)

Table 1. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from humans, by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 118 n = 75 n = 48 n = 52 n = 245 n = 107 n = 21 n = 27 n = 3 n = 7 %
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ceftiofur 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ceftriaxone 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 2 (2) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 6 (2) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Cefoxitin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Gentamicin 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Kanamycin 1 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Nalidixic acid 11 (9) 7 (9) 4 (8) 7 (13) 29 (12) 9 (8) 3 (14) 5 (19) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10
Streptomycin 5 (4) 5 (7) 3 (6) 2 (4) 4 (2) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
III Chloramphenicol 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Sulfisoxazole 2 (2) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 3 (1) 4 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Tetracycline 3 (3) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 2 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).
The abbreviations for the provinces are located in the Appendix on page 55.

Salmonella Heidelberg

(n = 276)

Table 2. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Heidelberg isolates from humans, by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 14 n = 30 n = 10 n = 27 n = 79 n = 75 n = 22 n = 12 n = 2 n = 5 %
I Amoxicillin- clavulanic acid 0 (0) 3 (10) 2 (20) 2 (7) 12 (15) 7 (9) 4 (18) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 12
Ceftiofur 0 (0) 5 (17) 2 (20) 2 (7) 12 (15) 7 (9) 4 (18) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 13
Ceftriaxone 0 (0) 4 (13) 2 (20) 2 (7) 12 (15) 7 (9) 4 (18) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 13
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 2 (14) 15 (50) 4 (40) 3 (11) 30 (38) 25 (33) 4 (18) 8 (67) 0 (0) 0 (0) 34
Cefoxitin 0 (0) 3 (10) 2 (20) 2 (7) 12 (15) 7 (9) 4 (18) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 12
Gentamicin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3) 4 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Kanamycin 1 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Nalidixic
acid
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Streptomycin 0 (0) 2 (7) 0 (0) 2 (7) 3 (4) 5 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 5
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 1
III Chloramphenicol 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Sulfisoxazole 0 (0) 2 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3) 6 (8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 4
Tetracycline 1 (7) 3 (10) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3) 2 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 4
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).

Salmonella Paratyphi A and
Paratyphi B

(n = 36)

Table 3. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B isolates from humans by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 14 n = 4 n = 2 n = 0 n = 10 n = 5 n = 0 n = 1 n = 0 n = 0 %
I Amoxicillin-
clavulanic
acid
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ceftiofur 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ceftriaxone 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (40) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6
Cefoxitin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Gentamicin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Kanamycin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Nalidixic
acid
14 (100) 2 (50) 1 (50) 0 (0) 10 (100) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 80
Streptomycin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
III Chloramphenicol 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Sulfisoxazole 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Tetracycline 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
Salmonella Paratyphi B does not include S. Paratyphi B var. L (+) tartrate +, formerly called S. Paratyphi var. Java. The biotype of S. Paratyphi B here included is tartrate negative and associated with more severe, typhoid-like fever. Salmonella Paratyphi B var. L (+) tartrate+ is commonly associated with gastro-enteritidis and is included under "Other serovars".
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).

Salmonella Typhi

(n=117)

Table 4. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Typhi isolates from humans by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canada
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 31 n = 12 n = 1 n = 3 n = 59 n = 11 n = 0 n = 0 n = 0 n = 0 %
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Ceftiofur 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Ceftriaxone 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Ciprofloxacin 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 2 (6) 8 (67) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (15) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 18
Cefoxitin 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Gentamicin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Kanamycin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Nalidixic
acid
26 (84) 11 (92) 1 (100) 3 (100) 42 (71) 5 (45) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 75
Streptomycin 1 (3) 7 (58) 0 (0) 0 (0) 8 (14) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 16
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
1 (3) 7 (58) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (15) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 17
III Chloramphenicol 1 (3) 7 (58) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (15) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 17
Sulfisoxazole 1 (3) 8 (67) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10 (17) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 18
Tetracycline 0 (0) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (5) 1 (9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.

Salmonella Typhimurium

(n = 269)

Table 5. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from humans by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 19 n = 36 n = 17 n = 12 n = 117 n = 41 n = 7 n = 12 n = 4 n = 4 %
I Amoxicillin-
clavulanic
acid
2 (11) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Ceftiofur 2 (11) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Ceftriaxone 2 (11) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 7 (37) 9 (25) 2 (12) 5 (42) 22 (19) 8 (20) 0 (0) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 21
Cefoxitin 2 (11) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Gentamicin 0 (0) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Kanamycin 1 (5) 4 (11) 1 (6) 3 (25) 4 (3) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5
Nalidixic
acid
3 (16) 2 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Streptomycin 6 (32) 13 (36) 2 (12) 4 (33) 21 (18) 9 (22) 1 (14) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 22
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
1 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (2) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
III Chloramphenicol 5 (26) 8 (22) 1 (6) 3 (25) 17 (15) 8 (20) 0 (0) 2 (17) 0 (0) 0 (0) 17
Sulfisoxazole 6 (32) 13 (36) 3 (18) 5 (42) 23 (20) 10 (24) 1 (14) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 24
Tetracycline 6 (32) 9 (25) 3 (18) 5 (42) 26 (22) 10 (24) 1 (14) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 24
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).

Salmonella “Other Serovars”

(n = 890)

Table 6. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella “Other Serovars” isolates from humans by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 119 n = 146 n = 60 n = 88 n = 285 n = 135 n = 27 n = 22 n = 3 n = 5 %
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 5 (4) 7 (5) 4 (7) 5 (6) 5 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Ceftiofur 5 (4) 7 (5) 4 (7) 5 (6) 6 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Ceftriaxone 5 (4) 7 (5) 4 (7) 5 (6) 6 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 11 (9) 12 (8) 7 (12) 10 (11) 12 (4) 5 (4) 2 (7) 1 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6
Cefoxitin 5 (4) 7 (5) 4 (7) 5 (6) 5 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Gentamicin 3 (3) 2 (1) 1 (2) 3 (3) 3 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1
Kana-
mycin
1 (1) 4 (3) 0 (0) 1 (1) 2 (1) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1
Nalidixic
acid
2 (2) 14 (10) 2 (3) 2 (2) 11 (4) 4 (3) 0 (0) 1 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4
Streptomycin 9 (8) 10 (7) 7 (12) 7 (8) 28 (10) 12 (9) 3 (11) 3 (14) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
5 (4) 8 (5) 0 (0) 1 (1) 4 (1) 4 (3) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
III Chloramphenicol 8 (7) 5 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (2) 2 (1) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Sulfisoxazole 11 (9) 14 (10) 9 (15) 6 (7) 14 (5) 8 (6) 2 (7) 1 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7
Tetracycline 15 (13) 30 (21) 12 (20) 12 (14) 39 (14) 14 (10) 4 (15) 5 (23) 0 (0) 0 (0) 15
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).

Table 7. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from humans, by province and serovar; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Table 7. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from humans, by province and serovar; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as "Less common serovars".
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Click to enlarge

Table 7 - Text Equivalent

Figure 1. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in human isolates of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Paratyphi A and B; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2003–2009.

Figure 1. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in human isolates of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Paratyphi A and B; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2003–2009.

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Figure 1 - Text Equivalent

Figure 2. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in human isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhi, Typhimurium, and “Other Serovars”; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2003–2009.

Figure 2. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in human isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhi, Typhimurium, and “Other Serovars”; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2003–2009.

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Figure 2 - Text Equivalent

Beef Cattle

Salmonella

Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates

(n = 122)

Figure 3. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from cattle; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Figure 3. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from cattle; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

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Figure 3 - Text Equivalent

Table 8. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from cattle, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Table 8. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from cattle, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”. 
Serovar identity was not available for 1 isolate.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Click to enlarge

Table 8 - Text Equivalent

Escherichia coli

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 119)

Figure 4. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 4. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 4 - Text Equivalent

Figure 5. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 5. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 5 - Text Equivalent

Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 647)

Figure 6. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 6. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 6 - Text Equivalent

Figure 7. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 7. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 7 - Text Equivalent

Campylobacter

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 86; C. jejuni – n = 64; C. coli – n = 16; Campylobacter spp. – n = 6)

Figure 8. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 8. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

a Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

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Figure 8 - Text Equivalent

Table 9. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle, by Campylobacter species; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Table 9. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle, by Campylobacter species; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
a Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

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Table 9 - Text Equivalent

Figure 9. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2006–2009.

Figure 9. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2006–2009.

a This number of isolates includes isolates from year 2005 (n = 23).

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Figure 9 - Text Equivalent

Chickens

Salmonella

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 230)

Figure 10. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 10. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 10 - Text Equivalent

Table 10. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chickens, by serovar; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Table 10. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chickens, by serovar; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Click to enlarge

Table 10 - Text Equivalent

Figure 11. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 11. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 11 - Text Equivalent

Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 457)

Figure 12. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 12. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 12 - Text Equivalent

Table 11. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chicken, by serovar; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Table 11. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chicken, by serovar; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Click to enlarge

Table 11 - Text Equivalent

Figure 13. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 13. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 13 - Text Equivalent

Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates

(n = 253)

Figure 14. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Figure 14. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

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Figure 14 - Text Equivalent

Table 12. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chickens, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Table 12. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chickens, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Serovar identity was not available for 2 isolates.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Click to enlarge

Table 12 - Text Equivalent

Escherichia coli

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 171)

Figure 15. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 15. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 15 - Text Equivalent

Figure 16. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 16. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 16 - Text Equivalent

Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 619)

Figure 17. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 17. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 17 - Text Equivalent

Figure 18. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 18. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 18 - Text Equivalent

Campylobacter

Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 325)

Figure 19. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 19. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 19 - Text Equivalent

Figure 20. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates (n = 325) from chicken, by Campylobacter species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 20. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates (n = 325) from chicken, by Campylobacter species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

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Figure 20 - Text Equivalent

Table 13. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Campylobacter isolates from chicken, by species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Table 13. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance pattern of Campylobacter isolates from chicken, by species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

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Table 13 - Text Equivalent

Figure 21. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 21. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Ciprofloxacin has replaced nalidixic acid in the Campylobacter temporal graphs because resistance to nalidixic acid is close or identical to ciprofloxacin resistance. Unlike resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin resistance does not pose the problem associated with intrinsic resistance in certain Campylobacter spp.

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Figure 21 - Text Equivalent

Enterococcus

Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 459)

Figure 22. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by province; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 22. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by province; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

a Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin (QDA) and lincomycin (LIN) is not reported for E. faecalis because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to these antimicrobials.
Due to quality control and other laboratory-based issues, results of Enterococcus isolates from the Maritimes are not presented in 2009 (n=89).

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Figure 22 - Text Equivalent

Figure 23. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by Enterococcus species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 23. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by Enterococcus species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

a Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin and lincomycin is not reported for E. faecalis because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to these antimicrobials.

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Figure 23 - Text Equivalent

Table 14. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Table 14. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance pattern of Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
a Because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to lincomycin and quinupristine-dalfopristine the range is 10-11.

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Table 14 - Text Equivalent

Figure 24. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 24. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Due to quality control and other laboratory-based issues, results of Enterococcus isolates from the Maritimes are not presented in 2009 (n=89).

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Figure 24 - Text Equivalent

Pigs

Salmonella

Farm Surveillance

(n =124)

Figure 25. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 25. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 25 - Text Equivalent

Table 15. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns in Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Table 15. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance pattern in Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as ''Less common serovars”.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

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Table 15 - Text Equivalent

Figure 26. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2009.

Figure 26. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2009.

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Figure 26 - Text Equivalent

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 147)

Figure 27. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 27. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 27 - Text Equivalent

Table 16. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Table 16. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

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Table 16 - Text Equivalent

Figure 28. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 28. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 28 - Text Equivalent

Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates

(n = 198)

Figure 29. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Figure 29. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

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Figure 29 - Text Equivalent

Table 17. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Table 17. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Serovar identity was not available for 3 isolates.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

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Table 17 - Text Equivalent

Escherichia coli

Farm Surveillance

(n = 1,800)

Figure 30. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 30. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 30 - Text Equivalent

Figure 31. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2009.

Figure 31. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2009.

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Figure 31 - Text Equivalent

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 160)

Figure 32. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 32. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 32 - Text Equivalent

Figure 33. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 33. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 33 - Text Equivalent

Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 322)

Figure 34. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pork, by province; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 34. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pork, by province; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

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Figure 34 - Text Equivalent

Figure 35. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pork; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 35. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pork; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

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Figure 35 - Text Equivalent

Enterococcus

Farm Surveillance

(n = 1,704)

Figure 36. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 36. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

a Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin (QDA) and lincomycin (LIN) is not reported for E. faecalis because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to these antimicrobials.

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Figure 36 - Text Equivalent

Table 18. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Enterococcus isolates from pigs, by species; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Table 18. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Enterococcus isolates from pigs, by species; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
a Because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to lincomycin and quinupristine-dalfopristine, the range is 10-11.

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Table 18 - Text Equivalent

Figure 37. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2009.

Figure 37. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2009.

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Figure 37 - Text Equivalent

Turkeys

Salmonella

Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates

(n = 60)

Figure 38. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from turkeys; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Figure 38. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from turkeys; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

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Figure 38 - Text Equivalent

Table 19. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from turkeys, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Table 19. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from turkeys, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as ''Less common serovars''.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine,, respectively.

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Table 19 - Text Equivalent

Horses

Salmonella

Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates

(n = 23)

Figure 39. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from horses; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Figure 39. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from horses; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

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Figure 39 - Text Equivalent

Table 20. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from horses, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Table 20. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from horses, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovar identity was not available for 1 isolate.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

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Table 20 - Text Equivalent